Engineering is akin to writing or painting in that it is a creative endeavor that begins in the mind’s eye and proceeds into new frontiers of thought and action, where it does not so much find as make new things. Just as the poet starts with a blank sheet of paper and the artist with a blank canvas, so the engineer today begins with a blank computer screen. Until the outlines of a design are set down, however tentatively, there can be no appeal to science or to critical analysis to judge or test the design. Scientific, rhetorical or aesthetic principles may be called on to inspire, refine and finish a design, but creative things do not come of applying the principles alone. Without the sketch of a thing or a diagram of a process, scientific facts and laws are of little use to engineers. Science may be the theater, but engineering is the action on the stage.
76. The writer’s main aim in this passage is to ----.
A) show how many different types of creativity there are
B) stress the creative and constructive aspects of an engineer’s work
C) compare and contrast the way poets and painters work
D) show that literary creativity is superior to the painter’s creativity
E) establish the fact that it is the engineers’ scientific knowledge that makes him creative
77. We understand from the passage that, for the engineer, scientific laws ----.
A) only have a role to play after a design has taken some sort of form
B) are only relevant in details concerning safety
C) are a constant factor all through the creative process of design
D) play an important role only when it comes to finalizing certain details
E) are rarely applicable at any stage in his projects
78. The point is made in the passage that aesthetic principles ----.
A) have no place in an engineer’s design
B) are central to the very best works of art
C) and creativity are two very different things
D) cannot be taught or learnt
E) can infuse life into an ill-conceived poem
79. It can be inferred from the passage that, once a poet has achieved the basic core of his poem, ----.
A) the creative process is complete
B) he tends to lose interest in it
C) he should wait a while before transcribing it onto a blank sheet of paper
D) aesthetic principles may help him to intensify and complete it
E) he must start to examine it for flaws and then remove them
80. According to the writer of the passage, each act of creativity ----.
A) necessitates the crossing of frontiers and entry into unknown regions
B) is dependent upon a storehouse of closely related knowledge
C) arises almost equally out of thought and inspiration and knowledge
D) has some bearing on other acts of creativity
E) in one sphere of endeavour has its counterpart in another
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